Key to Symbols

Allele Designation:

The number usually refers to an isolation number. Numbers without prefixes indicate the original Beadle and Tatum mutants. The few exceptions are indicated by underlining the allele numbers.

Prefixes used are as follows:

A     M. Ahmad     
AB    Used by Thomas E. Johnson 
ALS   Alice L. Schroeder  
ANTAS Used by John H. Chalmers, Jr.   
AR    Alan Radford 
B     Brookhaven National Laboratory--used  by Val Woodward; M.E. Case et     
         al. to refer to pan-2 alleles
BAT   Used by J.L. Reissig                          
BC    Used by R.L. Metzenberg   
BE    Bruce Eberhart                                   
BS    B.R. Smith                             
BVS   B.V. Smith                                    
C     California Institute of Technology     
C-    Cornell University  
CA    Canberra--used by D. Smyth
car   Used by A.M. Kapular      
CD    Used by R.H. Davis  
CJS   Carol J. Smarr--used by D.D. Perkins   
CL    Used by A.S. Sussman      
CM    Used by A.M. Eberhart     
CN    Used by N.F. Robertson    
CR    Used by W.M. Thwaites to denote citrulline resistant
CR-   Used by H. Bertrand 
CU    Columbia University 
D     Duke University--used by S.R. Gross    
D     Used by G.A. Marzluf      
DBL   D.B. Lee                                      
DFC   D.F. Caroline
DH    Dorothy Halsall                               
DJ    David  Jacobson
DK    Used by S.R. Gross  
DL    A.M. DeLange--used by N.B. Raju        
DS    David Stadler
DW    Dow Woodward 
E     Emerson--used by Sterling Emerson;  also used by T. Ishikawa to refer to
         ad-8 mutants      
ER    Used by V.E.A. Russo      
F     Used by D. Woodward, et al. to refer to ad-4 mutants
FB    Frank Buxton 
FK    Fraser and Kafer    
FLR   Used by S.R. Gross  
FS    Florida State--used by DeBusk/Selitrennikoff        
G     B. Gowdridge--used by M.J. Mayo  
GH    George Hoffmann     
GN    Used by G.W. Charlang     
H     Hungate--used by Frank Hungate   
HC    Ho Coy Choke 
HK    Homare Kuwana
HS    Hugh Sweeney 
HY    Used by Julian Hartley   
I     Used by G.A. Marzluf      
j     Used by I.B. Barthelmess  
JBM   Joyce B. Maxwell          
JC    J.B. Courtright     
JFL   J.F. Lehman--used by R.L. Metzenberg          
JH    Johns Hopkins Univ.--used by W.D. McElroy
JI    John Innes (Inst.)--used by J.R. Fincham
JL    John Leslie               
JP    John Paietta                     
K     Used by D.G. Catcheside; also by K.C. Atwood for K22 (amyc)      
KG    Kwansei Gakuin--used by H. Kuwana        
KGP   K.G. Perrine        
KH    K.S. Hsu     
KO    Used by A. Radford        
KS    Kansas State--used by V. Woodward   
L     C.C. Lindegren                                
L     L. Livingston
LD    Lori Dunn     
LLM   Laura Livingston Mays      
LO    Lori Olson   
LP    Lakshmi Pendyala                       
LW    Lloyd Wolfinbarger                     
M     B.D. Maling
MB    Monica Bjorkman
MD    Michael C. Deeley
MEP   Used by R.H. Davis
MK    Used by V.E.A. Russo                     
MKG   Used by R.L. Metzenberg           
MN    Mutant Neurospora--used by D.E.A. Catcheside     
MW    Used by A.S. Sussman         
N     Dorothy Newmeyer             
NAN   Used by Morris Grindle      
NM    Noreen  Murray
NMR   Used by G.A. Marzluf        
NS    W.N. Strickland            
OP    Used by G.J.Sorger
ORS   Used by O. Mylyk
OY    O.C. Yoder
P     Perkins--used by D.D. Perkins; also  by N.E. Murray nee Parker
PB    Used by Thomas E. Johnson
PD    Peter Dodd
PJR   Peter J. Russell
PR    Designates partial reversion           
R     Rockefeller--used by E.L. Tatum
RC    Reed College                           
RES   R.E. Subden
RLM   R.L. Metzenberg
RLP   R. LePage                                     
RP    R.L. Phillips                             
RS    R.W. Siegel--used by D.D. Perkins      
RU    Rice University              
RW    Ruth Williams--used by L.G. Williams
RWT   R.W. Tuveson
S     Stanford--used by E.L. Tatum
SAT   Sharon A. Thomas
SC    South Carolina--used by Mishra & DeLange 
SDS   San Diego State
SF    Used by H.G. Gratzner
SG    Sam Gross--used by D.D. Perkins 
STL   St. Lawrence       
SUE   Used by R.E. Subden
SV    S.J. Vollmer
T     Texas--used by R.P. Wagner  
T     Tokyo--used by T. Ishikawa  
TB    Thomas Baker               
TJS   T.J. Schmidhauser
TL    T. Legerton
TM    Used by D.G. Catcheside and T. Angel nee Maxia
TP    Thomas Paulus
U     Used by G.A. Marzluf
UA    Univ. of Alberta--used by K.K. Jha
UCLA  Univ. of California, Los Angeles                    
UFC   United Fruit Co.--used by R.D. Goos
UG    Univ. of Georgia--used by Branch Howe
UK    Univ. of Kansas--used by J.A. Kinsey
UM    Univ. of Michigan--used by R.H. Davis
UT    Univ. of Texas
UV    Used by M. Grindle
UVC   Used by M. Grindle
UW    Univ. of Wisconsin--used by R.L. Metzenberg
UWO   Univ. of Western Ontario--used by W.L. Greer
V     N.V. Vigfusson
V     Virginia--used by R.H. Garrett
WRN   Used by T.W. Seale to designate reversion by nitrous acid.
WRR   Used by G.A. Marzluf
WRU   Used by T.W. Seale to designate reversion by ultraviolet            
Y     Yale--used by E.L. Tatum(1945-49); 
X     Used by B.M. Eberhart, also N.H. Giles (to 1973)              
Z     H. Zalkin                                          

Suffixes used are as follows:

Ab aberration (r) resistant (d) dependent (s) sensitive (p) pH-sensitive (t) temperature-sensitive pr partial reversion T translocation (reciprocal or insertional)
In addition, in cases where more than one gene mutation has been recovered from a stock, a suffix is added to the isolation number to differentiate the two; i.e., Y30539y is an allele of ylo-1; y30539r an allele of rib-2.

Genetic Background:

The symbols are designed to provide the general nature of the background of each stock. No attempt is made to provide detailed information. Several nonidentical lines of Emerson, Lindegren and St. Lawrence wild types are in use. As stocks improved, a given laboratory often changed to different but related wild types. Where detailed information is essential, the investigator should write directly to the Stock Center. For origin of some of the wild type strains, see Barratt, R.W., "Origin of Important Wild Type Stocks of N. crassa", Neurospora Newsletter 2:24-25 and Neurospora Newsletter 3:19; Case, M.E. et al. "Further Information on the Origin of the Yale and Oak Ridge Wild Type Strains of N. crassa", Neurospora Newsletter 8:25-26, Catcheside, D.G. 1975 "Occurrence in Wild Strains of Neurospora crassa of Genes Controlling Genetic Recombination", Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 28:213-225 and Newmeyer, D. et al. 1987 "An annotated pedigree of Neurospora crassa laboratory wild types, showing the probable origin of the nucleolus satellite and showing that certain stocks are not authentic", Fungal Genetics Newsletter 34:46-51.

For many of the original mutant strains of Beadle and Tatum, only incomplete records are available as to whether existing strains are original or derived. Where any doubt occurs, the symbol O? is employed to indicate uncertainty.

Symbols used are as follows:

A    Abbott                                       
C    Chilton                                
L    Lindegren                 
E    Emerson                         
M    Mixed                           
RL   Rockefeller-Lindegren                             
SL   St. Lawrence                    
AxM  Abbott crossed with mixed
AxC  Abbott crossed with Chilton
LxE  Lindegren crossed with Emerson      
AxL  Abbott crossed with Lindegren          
Numbers after symbols (as SL4) refer to the number of backcrosses to the indicated background. SL4 should be read "back-crossed into St. Lawrence background four times."

Locus symbols used for Neurospora tetrasperma

A/a   mating type alleles
d     lethal producing deliquescent asci; wild type allele D (formerly        
        called 1,L)
E     lethal preventing ascospore maturation on certain media, producing      
         8-spored asci on other media dominant);  wild type allele e
I     lethal producing indurated asci (dominant); wild type allele i
v     dwarf or yellow dwarf; wild type allele v

Mutagen - Symbols used to indicate the mutagen employed are as follows:

A acridine ICR-170 AFT-B Alfatoxin B1 2-AP 2-Aminopurine BUDR 5-bromodeoxyuridine Co-60 cobalt 60 D/D displacement/disruption DEB diepoxybutane DEO diepoxyoctane DS diethyl or dimethyl sulfate EMS ethyl methane sulfonate FUDR 5-fluorodeoxyuridine G gamma radiation HA hydroxylamine M mustard (nitrogen or sulfur) MC methylcholanthrene MDAB methyl-dimethylaminobenzene MMS methyl methane sulfonate N neutrons NA nitrous acid NG N-methyl-N'-nitrosoguanidine 4-NQO 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide O no mutagen, allele present in parent strain P beta propiolactone RIP Repeat Induced Point mutation TR transformation S spontaneous S35 sulfur 35 UV ultraviolet light X x-rays UV+M ultraviolet + mustard simultaneously

Locus symbols used for Neurospora interspecific hybrids

A mating type alleles C crassa E England S sitophila T tetrasperma V Virginia, USA

Obtained from:

AA    A. Almasan                             
AGD   A. Gib DeBusk                  
AJG   A.J. Griffiths                 
AL    Alan Lambowitz                         
ALS   Alice L. Schroeder             
AMK   Alan M. Kapular                
AML   Ann Matthews Lacy              
AMS   Adrian M. Srb                  
AMW   Angela M. Wellman              
AR    Alan Radford                           
AS    Alfred Sussman                         
ATCC  American Type Culture Collection                             
BBG   Bronx Botanical Garden         
BCT   Barbara C. Turner              
BDM   Barbara D. Maling              
BME   Bruce M. Eberhart              
BRS   B.R. Smith                     
BSR   B. Seidel-Rogol                
BSS   B.S. Strauss                   
BVS   Bonita V. Smith                
BW    Brian White                    
CBS   Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures                       
CFC   C.F. Curtis                    
CIT   Calif. Inst. of Tech.          
CMI   Commonwealth Mycological Institute                          
CPS   C.P. Selitrennikoff            
CS    Chuck Staben                           
CTY   Carl T. Yamashiro
CWH   C.W. Hesseltine                
CWM   Clint W. Magill                
CWS   Carolyn W. Slayman             
CY    Charles Yanofsky                       
DAS   David A. Smith                 
DDP   David D. Perkins               
DE    Dan Ebbole                             
DEC   D.E.A. Catcheside              
DGC   D.G. Catcheside                
DJL   David J. Luck                          
DJW   David J. West                  
DLE   David L. Edwards               
DMB   David M. Bonner                
DMH   Dorothy M. Halsall             
DNP   D. Newmeyer Perkins            
DPM   D.P. Mahoney                   
DRG   Donna R. Galeazzi              
DRS   David R. Stadler               
DS    D.R. Smyth                             
EGB   Edward G. Barry                
EGS   Emory G. Simmons               
EJM   Edward J. Mullaney             
EK    Etta Kafer                             
ELT   Edward L. Tatum                        
ER    Edward Reich                           
ESJ   Eric S. Jacobsen                       
EWR   Edith Wong Rao                 
FD    Frank Doe                              
FGSC  Fungal Genetics Stock Center 
FHG   Frank H. Gaertner              
FJD   F.J. de Serres          
FRL   Frank R. Lauter
FJL   Franz J. Leinweber  
FPB   Frank P. Buxton
GAM   George A. Marzluf
GAS   G.A. Scarborough
GM    Gregory May           
GRH   George R. Hoffman
GS    George Sorger
GWC   Gisela W. Charlang
GWG   G.W. Grigg
HA    Harold Aurich      
HB    Helmut Bertrand       
HBH   H. Branch Howe
HCC   Ho Coy Choke
HDB   H.D. Braymer
HDV   Hans de Vries          
HFT   Hector F. Terenzi
HGG   Howard G. Gratzner
HGK   H.G. K lmark
HI    Hirokazu Inoue
HK    Homare Kuwana
HWS   H. Wayne Shew
IBB   I.B. Barthelmess
JAD   John A. DeMoss
JAK   John A. Kinsey
JBC   J.B. Courtright
JBM   Joyce B. Maxwell
JCK   John C. Krug
JCM   J.C. Murray
JFF   Jerry F. Feldman
JFL   John F. Leslie
JFW   J.F. Wilson
JH    J. Hartley
JHC   J.H. Chalmers, Jr.
JJL   Jennifer J. Loros
JLR   Jose L. Reissig
JM    Jaime Mora             
JRF   J.R. Fincham
JW    Jan Weijer
JWT   John W. Taylor        
KEA   Kenneth E. Allen
KDM   Kenneth D. Munkres
KF    Kouhei Furuya         
KJM   K.J. McDougall
KKJ   Krishna K. Jha
KN    Kazuo Nakamura
KSH   K.S. Hsu
LB    Leon Belcour           
LG    Laura Garnjobst
LGW   Larry G. Williams
LLM   Laura L. Mays
LRL   Laura R. Livingston
LTC   Lung-Ting Chang
LW    Lloyd Wolfinbarger   
MA    Majeed Ahmad
MB    Monika Bjorkman
MBM   Mary B. Mitchell
MEC   Mary E. Case
MG    Morris Grindle
MGS   Michael G. Schechtman
MJM   M. Jean Mayo
ML    Melanie Loo
MLP   Martin L. Pall
MLS   Malcom L. Sargent   
MS    Marie Shields           
NBR   N.B. Raju              
NCM   N.C. Mishra             
NEM   Noreen E. Murray        
NFR   N.F. Robertson          
NGB   Neil G. Brink           
NHH   N.H. Horowitz           
NJW   N.J. Weston             
NRRL  Northern Regional Research Laboratory    
OCY   Olen C. Yoder           
OMM   Orest M. Mylyk          
PCH   P.C. Huang              
PJR   Peter J. Russell        
PMM   P.M. Mohan
PSL   P. St. Lawrence         
PT    Phillips Thayer         
RBC   R.B. Cain               
RBF   Richard B. Flavel       
RDG   Roger D. Goos           
REB   R.E. Beever            
REN   Robert E. Nelson        
RES   Ronald E. Subden        
RF    Robert Fuerst           
RH    Ruth Halaban            
RHD   Rowland H. Davis        
RHG   R.H. Garrett            
RKL   R.K. Littlewood         
RLM   R.L. Metzenberg         
RLP   R.L. Phillips           
RM    Ramesh Maheshwari       
RMD   Ruth M. DeBusk          
RPW   Robert P. Wagner        
RRB   R.R. Burk               
RTP   Robert T. Pollock       
RWB   Raymond W. Barratt      
RWH   Roy W. Harding
RWT   Robert W. Tuveson       
SB    Stuart Brody            
SE    Sterling Emerson        
SEG   S.E. Gochenaur          
SRG   Samson R. Gross         
SRS   S.R. Suskind            
SW    Susan Wellman           
TEJ   Thomas E. Johnson       
THP   T.H. Pittenger          
TI    Tatsuo Ishikawa         
TM    Tadako Muryama          
TMO   Tong-Man Ong            
TWS   Thomas W. Seale         
VEAR  V.E.A. Russo            
VWW   Val W. Woodward         
WK    W. Klingmuller     
WKB   William K. Bates         
WLG   W.L. Greer              
WMT   William M. Thwaites     
WNS   W.N. Strickland         
WSM   Walter S. McNutt   
YK    Yoshiaki Kitani             

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Last modified 11/11/96 KMC