FGSC #7251 Mating Types: a Species: Neurospora crassa
Genotype: a[m33] nic-2 cyh-1;inl inv mei-2
Depositor of Strain: RLM
Strain of Opposite Mating Type: 0
Lesion: am33 amination deficient
Lesion: cyh-1 cycloheximide resistant-1
Lesion Information for Marker:
      Linkage Group of cyh-1: IR
      Markers Left of cyh-1: nit-1 (6%)
      Markers Right ofcyh-1: T(STL76) and al-2 (8 to 13%)
Marker description or requirements:
      IR. Right of nit-1 (6%). Left of T(STL76) and al-2 (8 to 13%) (496, 797, 808).Resistant to cycloheximide (496, 748). Resistance is recessive in duplications (1090). Dominance reported in forced heterokaryons (496, 748) may have been due to skewed nuclear ratios (1090). Protein synthesis on ribosomes of the mutant cyh-1 proceeds in the presence of cycloheximide in a cell-free system (834). Readily scored on slants with 10 µg of cycloheximide per ml autoclaved in the medium. Excellent as a marker and valuable for selecting somatic recombinants or deletions in heterozygous duplications (748, 1091). Used to show that the cycloheximide-induced phase shift of the circadian clock involves protein synthesis (738). Called act-1: actidione resistant-1.
Reference for: cyh-1: 496. Hsu, K. S. 1963. The genetic basis of actidione resistance in Neurospora. J. Gen. Microbiol. 32:341-347.
Reference for: cyh-1: 738. Nakashima, H. , J. Perlman, and J. F. Feldman. 1981. Genetic evidence that protein synthesis is required for the circadian clock of Neurospora. Science 212:361-362.
Reference for: cyh-1: 748. Neuhaser, A. , W. Klingmller, and F. Kaudewitz. 1970. Selektion Actidion-resistenter Mutanten bei Neurospora crassa sowie ihregenetische und biochemische Analyse. Mol. Gen. Genet. 106:180-194.
Reference for: cyh-1: 797. Perkins, D. D. 1971. Gene order in the albino region of linkage group I. Neurospora Newsl. 18:14-15.
Reference for: cyh-1: 808. Perkins, D. D. , and E. G. Barry. 1977. The cytogenetics of Neurospora. Adv. Genet. 19:133-285.
Reference for: cyh-1: 834. Pongratz, M. , and W. Klingmller. 1973. Role of ribosomes in cycloheximide resistance of Neurospora mutants. Mol. Gen. Genet. 124:359-363.
Reference for: cyh-1: 1090. Turner, B. C. 1976. Dominance of the wild-type (sensitive) allele of cyh-1. Neurospora Newsl. 23:24.
Reference for: cyh-1: 1091. Turner, B. C. 1977. Euploid derivatives of duplications from a translocation in Neurospora. Genetics 85:439-460.
Lesion: inl inositol
Enzyme Name: myoinositol-1-phosphatase
Lesion Information for Marker:
      Linkage Group of inl: VR
      Markers Left of inl: pho-3 (3 to 4%),and al-3
      Markers Right ofinl: pab-1 (1 to 10%)
Marker description or requirements:
      VR. Between pho-3 (3 to 4%) and pab-1 (1 to 10%). Right of al-3 (362, 397, 1036). (482)Requires inositol (65). Lacks D-myoinositol-1-phosphatase (1142). Lack of glucocycloaldolase found by Pina and Tatum (826) is attributed by Williams (1142) to drastic repression of glucocycloaldolase by the concentration of inositol used for growth. Growth is colonial on low levels of inositol (367). Tends to extrude dark pigment into the medium when grown on suboptimal inositol. Composition of phospholipids and cell walls is abnormal on limiting inositol (367, 439, 440, 501). Inhibited by hexachlorocyclohexane (366, 457, 931). Conidia are subject to death by unbalanced growth on minimal medium (1028, 1033), a property exploited for mutant enrichment ("inositol-less death") (606, 647) because double mutants are at a selective advantage. Heat-sensitive allele 83201 is especially useful for mutant enrichment (832, 1043). Used in the first experiments reporting transformation of Neurospora by N. crassaDNA (677, 679) and reported to be efficient as a recipient in absence of inositol (1162). Used to study glucose (917) and sulfate (641) transport systems. Used extensively for studying induced reversion (392). Used for studying the mechanism of inositol-less death (647, 702), mutagenicity of ferrous ions, and regulation of mitochondrial membrane fluidity; for a review, see reference 702. Spontaneous reversion rates (386). Allele-specific partial suppressor (390). Allele 46802 is nonrevertable and inseparable from translocation 46802 (386, 808). Strains carrying heat-sensitive allele 83201 show slow semicolonial growth in liquid minimal medium at 25°C (641), but look normal on slants (D.D. Perkins, unpublished data). Strains carrying allele 89601 contain cross-reacting material (1183). Mutant gene exo-1 is present in the inl(89601) a stock FGSC 498 and may, therefore, be present in stocks of mutants derived by inositol-less death. (See references 194, 325, and 1027). Called inos.
Reference for: inl: 65. Beadle, G. W. 1944. An inositolless mutant strain of Neurospora and its use in bioassays. J. Biol. Chem. 156:683-689.
Reference for: inl: 194. Chen, Y. F. , C. C. Ho, and A. L. Demain. 1976. Genetic improvement of production of amylases in Neurospora intermedia. Genetics 83:s14(Abstr).
Reference for: inl: 325. Fass, D. N. 1969. Glucamylase of Neurospora:a regulated exoenzyme. Ph. D. thesis, Florida State University. Diss. Abstr. Intern. 30:5375B(1970).
Reference for: inl: 362. Freese, E. 1957. Uber die Feinstruktur des Genoms im Bereich eines PAB Locus von Neurospora crassa. Z. Indukt. Abstamungs. -Vererbungsl. 88:388-406.
Reference for: inl: 366. Fuller, R. C. , R. W. Barratt, and E. L. Tatum. 1950. The relationship between hexachlorocyclohexane and inositol in Neurospora. J. Biol. Chem. 186:823-827.
Reference for: inl: 367. Fuller, R. C. , and E. L. Tatum. 1956. Inositol-phospholipid in Neurospora and its relationship to morphology. Am. J. Bot. 43:361-365.
Reference for: inl: 386. Giles, N. H. 1951. Studies on the mechanism of reversion in biochemical mutants of Neurospora crassa. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 16:283-313.
Reference for: inl: 390. Giles, N. H. , and C. W. H. Partridge. 1953. The effect of a suppressor on allelic inositolless mutants in Neurospora crassa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 39:479-488.
Reference for: inl: 392. Giles, N. H. , F. J. de Serres, and C. W. H. Partridge. 1955. Comparative studies of X-ray-induced forward and reverse mutation. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 59:536-552.
Reference for: inl: 397. Gleason, M. K. , and R. L. Metzenberg. 1974. Regulation of phosphate metabolism in Neurospora crassa:isolation of mutants deficient inthe repressible alkaline phosphatase. Genetics 78:645-659.
Reference for: inl: 439. Hanson, B. A. 1980. Inositol-limited growth, repair, and translocation in an inositol-requiring mutant of Neurospora crassa. J. Bacteriol. 143:18-26.
Reference for: inl: 440. Hanson, B. , and S. Brody. 1979. Lipid and cell wall changes in an inositol-requiring mutant of Neurospora crassa. J. Bacteriol. 138:461-466.
Reference for: inl: 457. Hitz, H. -R. 1963. Die Wirkung von Hexachlorcyclohexanen bei Neurospora crassa inositolless. Arch. Mikrobiol. 45:217-246.
Reference for: inl: 482. Houlahan, M. B. , G. W. Beadle, and H. G. Calhoun. 1949. Linkage studies with biochemical mutants of Neurospora crassa. Genetics 34:493-507.
Reference for: inl: 501. Hubbard, S. C. , and S. Brody. 1975. Glycerophospholipid variation in choline and inositol auxotrophs of Neurospora crassa:internalcompensation among zwitterionic and anionic species. J. Biol. Chem. 250:7173-7181.
Reference for: inl: 606. Lester, H. E. , and S. R. Gross. 1959. Efficient method for selection of auxotrophic mutants of Neurospora. Science 129:572.
Reference for: inl: 641. Marzluf, G. A. 1973. Regulation of sulfate transport in Neurospora by transinhibition and by inositol depletion. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 156:244-254.
Reference for: inl: 647. Matile, P. 1966. Inositol deficiency resulting in death:an explanation of its occurrence in Neurospora crassa. Science 151:86- 88.
Reference for: inl: 677. Mishra, N. C. , G. Szabo, and E. L. Tatum. 1973. Nucleic acid-induced genetic changes in Neurospora. In M. C. Niu and S. J. Segal (ed. ), The role of RNA in reproduction and development. North/Holland, Amsterdam.p. 259-268.
Reference for: inl: 679. Mishra, N. C. , and E. L. Tatum. 1973. Non-Mendelian inheritance of DNA-induced inositol independence in Neurospora. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 70:3875-3879.
Reference for: inl: 702. Munkres, K. D. 1981. Biochemical genetics of aging of Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina:a review. In R. S. Sohal (ed. ),Age pigments. North-Holland, Amsterdam.p. 83-100.
Reference for: inl: 808. Perkins, D. D. , and E. G. Barry. 1977. The cytogenetics of Neurospora. Adv. Genet. 19:133-285.
Reference for: inl: 826. Pina, E. , and E. L. Tatum. 1967. Inositol biosynthesis in Neurospora crassa. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 136:265-271.
Reference for: inl: 832. Pittenger, T. H. , and D. J. West. 1979. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive respiratory mutants of Neurospora crassa. Genetics 93:539-555.
Reference for: inl: 917. Sargent, M. L. , and S. H. Kaltenborn. 1972. Effects of medium composition and carbon dioxide on circadian conidiation in Neurospora. Plant Physiol. 50:171-175.
Reference for: inl: 931. Schopfer, W. H. , and T. Posternak. 1958. Action d'anti-inositols sur Neurospora crassa "inositolless" cultive en milieu hautement purifie. Arch. Mikrobiol. 31:240-243.
Reference for: inl: 1027. Sternberg, D. , and A. S. Sussman. 1974. Hyperproduction of some glycosidases in Neurospora crassa. Arch. Microbiol. 101:303-320.
Reference for: inl: 1028. Stevens, C. M. , and A. Mylroie. 1953. Inhibition effects in back-mutation tests with mutants of Neurospora. Nature 171:179-180.
Reference for: inl: 1033. Strauss, B. S. 1958. Cell death and "unbalanced growth" in Neurospora. J. Gen. Microbiol. 18:658-669.
Reference for: inl: 1036. Strickland, W. N. , D. D. Perkins, and C. C. Veatch. 1959. Linkage data for group V markers in Neurospora. Genetics 44:1221-1226.
Reference for: inl: 1043. Sullivan, J. L. , and A. G. DeBusk. 1971. Method for specific selection of temperature-sensitive mutants. Neurospora Newsl. 18:13.
Reference for: inl: 1142. Williams, S. G. 1971. Biosynthesis of inositol by inositol-less mutants of Neurospora crassa. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 24:1181-1188.
Reference for: inl: 1162. Wootton, J. C. , M. J. Fraser, and A. J. Baron. 1980. Efficient transformation of germinating Neurospora conidia using total nuclear DNAfragments. Neurospora Newsl. 27:33.
Reference for: inl: 1183. Zsindely, A. , M. Szabolcs, M. Kavai, M. Schablik, J. Aradi, and G. Szabo. 1979. Demonstration of myo-inositol1-phosphate synthase andits assumed defective variant in various Neurospora crassa strains by immunological methods. Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 30:141-149.
Lesion: inv invertase
Enzyme Name: invertase
Lesion Information for Marker:
      Linkage Group of inv: VR
      Markers Left of inv: pab-2 (3%) and ro-4 (5 to 8%)
      Markers Right ofinv: asn (4 to 9%)
Marker description or requirements:
      VR. Right of pab-2 (3%) and ro-4 (5 to 8%), Left of asn (4 to 9%) (918, PB).Unable to use sucrose as a carbon source. Grows well on glucose or fructose and fairly well on Casamino Acids or yeast extract. Invertase structural gene; invertase deficient and uninducible by normal inducers. Makes cross-reacting material (919). Invertase is also affected by cot-2, q.v.
Reference for: inv: 918. Sargent, M. L. , and D. O. Woodward. 1969. Genetic determinants of circadian rhythmicity in Neurospora. J. Bacteriol. 97:861-866.
Reference for: inv: 919. Sargent, M. L. , and D. O. Woodward. 1969. Gene-enzyme relationships in Neurospora invertase. J. Bacteriol. 97:867-872.
Lesion: mei-2 Meiotic-2
Lesion Information for Marker:
      Linkage Group of mei-2: VR
      Markers Left of mei-2: al-3
      Markers Right ofmei-2: his-6
Marker description or requirements:
      VR. Linked near inl (995). Between al-3 (20 and his-6(A.L. Schroeder, personal communication). Meiotic divisions occur, and many ascospor are produced, but many are inviable and white. Crosses heterozygous or homozygous for Mei-2 give extensive nondisjunction of all linkage groups (995). Chromosome pairing much reduced (B.C. Lu, cited in reference 995). Sensitive to methyl methane sulfonate, histidine, and gamma rays (939). Dominant in the original strain (995), but progeny show incomplete penetrance (939).
Reference for: mei-2: 939. Schroeder, A. L. , and L. D. Olson. 1982. Mutagen sensitivity of Neurospora meiotic mutants. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 25:16-25.
Reference for: mei-2: 995. Smith, D. A. 1975. A mutant affecting meiosis in Neurospora. Genetics 80:125-133.
Lesion: nic-2 nicotinic acid-2
Lesion Information for Marker:
      Linkage Group of nic-2: IR
      Markers Left of nic-2: ad-3B (4%)
      Markers Right ofnic-2: ace-7 (4 to 7%)
Marker description or requirements:
      IR. Between ad-3B (4%) and ace-7 (4 to 7%) (271, 578). (482) Grows on nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, or high concentrations of quinolinic acid (97, 1168). Cannot use kynurenine, hydroxykynurenine, or hydroxyanthranilic acid (96, 1168). Accumulates 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (96) (Fig. 18). Aging cultures accumulate red-brown pigment in the medium. Used to study intralocus recombination (908). Translocations T(4540) and T(S1325)are inseparable from nic-2 (808, 908, 911).
Reference for: nic-2: 96. Bonner, D. M. 1948. The identification of a natural precursor of nicotinic acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 34:5-9.
Reference for: nic-2: 97. Bonner, D. M. , and G. W. Beadle. 1946. Mutant strains of Neurospora requiring nicotinamide or related compounds for growth. Arch. Biochem. 11:319-328.
Reference for: nic-2: 271. De Serres, F. J. 1969. Comparison of the complementation and genetic maps of closely linked nonallelic markers on linkage group I ofNeurospora crassa. Mutat. Res. 8:43-50.
Reference for: nic-2: 482. Houlahan, M. B. , G. W. Beadle, and H. G. Calhoun. 1949. Linkage studies with biochemical mutants of Neurospora crassa. Genetics 34:493-507.
Reference for: nic-2: 578. Kuwana, H. , and R. Okumura. 1979. Genetics and some characteristics of acetate-requiring strains in Neurospora crassa. Jpn. J. Genet. 54:235-244.
Reference for: nic-2: 808. Perkins, D. D. , and E. G. Barry. 1977. The cytogenetics of Neurospora. Adv. Genet. 19:133-285.
Reference for: nic-2: 908. St. Lawrence, P. 1959. Gene conversion at the nic-2 locus of Neurospora crassa in crosses between strains with normal chromosomes anda strain carrying a translocation at the locus. Genetics 44:532 (Abstr. ).
Reference for: nic-2: 911. St. Lawrence, P. , and J. R. Singleton. 1963. The cytogenetic effects of a paracentric inversion in Neurospora crassa. Proc. 11th Int. Congr. Genet. (The Hague) 1:119 (Abstr. ).
Reference for: nic-2: 1168. Yanofsky, C. , and D. M. Bonner. 1950. Evidence for the participation of kynurenine as a normal intermediate in the biosynthesis of niacinin Neurospora. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 36:167-176.


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