FGSC #3120 Mating Types: a Species: Neurospora crassa
Genotype: per-1 al-3;fl
Alleles: AR174 RP100 P
Linkage Group(s): VR VR;IIR
Stock No. from Other Collection: 9232
Depositor of Strain: DDP
Strain of Opposite Mating Type: 3960
Reference: Perkins and Bjorkman 1979. N.N.26:9-10
Lesion: al-3 albino-3
Enzyme Name: geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
Lesion Information for Marker:
      Linkage Group of al-3: VR
      Markers Left of al-3: his-1
      Markers Right ofal-3: inl (1%)
Marker description or requirements:
      VR. Between his-1 and inl (1%) (1119, PB). Carotenoids deficient (398). Reported to lack geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity and is blocked in soluble fraction, consistent with lesion between isopentenyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (445), but can still produce farnesyl pyrophosphate (445) and steroids (398). (See Fig. 9.) This evidence contradicts in vivo labeling results that indicate a lesion between prephytoene pyrophosphate and phytoene (572). Strains carrying allele Y234M470 (al-3ros), formerly called rosy (49), become partially pigmented but are readily distinguished from the wild type. ylo-1 can be scored in combination with al-3ros (Y234M470) (PB). Strains carrying other alleles (e.g., RP100) (1119) are white with a trace of pink pigment. Biosynthetic pathway for carotenoids. It is thought that the same prenyl transferase catalyzes all the steps from dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (444; R.W. Harding, personal communication), and it has been proposed that a separate prenyl transferase converts dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to farnesyl pyrophosphate for sterol synthesis (445). The conversion of phytoene to the various carotenoid pigments involves a series of dehydrogenations, cyclizations, and other reactions. There must also be a cis/trans isomerization analogous to that found in tomato (842). The sequence of some of these steps is still uncertain; the pathway must branch, and there may be alternate routes to some of the products. See references 228, 443, 444, 842 and citations therein for proposed sequences. al-1 is probably blocked in phytoene dehydrogenase (398). It is not known whether this enzyme catalyzes the whole series of dehydrogenations. al-2 is reported blocked between geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and phytoene (445) and between prephytoene pyrophosphate and phytoene (572). al-3 is alternately reported blocked between isopentenyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (445) and between prephytoene pyrophosphate and phytoene (572), but it is not blocked in the production of farnesyl pyrophosphate or sterols (398, 445). ylo-1 is evidently blocked in a late step, probably either in the conversion of lycopene to 3,4-dehydrolycopene or in the conversion of either torulene or gamma-carotene to neurosporaxanthin (see citations in reference 398).
Reference for: al-3: 49. Barratt, R. W. , and W. N. Ogata. 1978. Neurospora stock list. Ninth revision (June 1978). Neurospora Newsl. 25:29-96.
Reference for: al-3: 398. Goldie, A. H. , and R. E. Subden. 1973. The neutral carotenoids of wild-type and mutant strains of Neurospora crassa. Biochem. Genet. 10:275-284.
Reference for: al-3: 444. Harding, R. W. , and W. Shropshire, Jr. 1980. Photocontrol of carotenoid biosynthesis. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 31:217-238.
Reference for: al-3: 445. Harding, R. W. , and R. V. Turner. 1981. Photoregulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in albino and white collar mutants ofNeurospora crassa. Plant Physiol. 68:745-749.
Reference for: al-3: 572. Kushwaha, S. C. , M. Kates, R. L. Renaud, and R. E. Subden. 1978. The terpenyl pyrophosphates of wild type and tetraterpene mutants ofNeurospora crassa. Lipids 13:352-355.
Reference for: al-3: 842. Qureshi, A. A. , M. Kim, N. Qureshi, and J. W. Porter. 1974. The enzymatic conversion of cis-[14C] phytofluene, trans-[14C] phytofluene,and trans-zeta-[14C] carotene to poly-cis-acyclic carotenes by a cell-free preparation of tangerine tomato fruit plastids. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 162:108-116.
Reference for: al-3: 1119. Wang, S. S. , J. M. Magill, and R. W. Phillips. 1971. Auxotrophic and visible mutations in white-spore (ws-1). Neurospora Newsl. 18:16-17.
Lesion: fl fluffy
Lesion Information for Marker:
      Linkage Group of fl: IIR
      Markers Left of fl: ace-1 (5 to 11%)
      Markers Right offl: trp-3 (3%)
Marker description or requirements:
      IIR. Between ace-1 (5 to 11%) and trp-3 (3%) (816, PB). (613)No macroconidia (609). Highly fertile (612). Used routinely as the female parent in tests for chromosome rearrangements and for mating type (e.g., reference 801). The flsingle mutant produces few microconidia when dry; when wetted, sufficient microconidia are produced to have been used in early irradiation and mutation studies (614, 915); large numbers can be obtained under certain conditions; see reference 893. pe fl (46, 700) and fl;dn (806) double mutants produce abundant microconidia; the latter combination is highly fertile when homozygous. Photograph of microconidial formation (774); see also reference 893. Nuclear numbers in microconidia (46, 64, 478). Wall analysis (207). Immunoelectrophoretic pattern (784). Paradoxical high alcoholic glycolysis on nitrate medium (80). Deficiency of isocitrate lyase on acetate medium; see citations in reference 1088. When fl A and fl a strains are inoculated separately on crossing medium in plates, a double line of perithecia forms where they meet, similar to that accompanying barrage in Podospora (410, 414). fl ascospores from certain fl x fl+ crosses often germinate spontaneously (1127; N. B. Raju, personal communication). Allele C-1835 was called acon (717, 812).
Reference for: fl: 46. Barratt, R. W. and L. Garnjobst. 1949. Genetics of a colonial microconidiating mutant strain of N. crassa. Genetics 34:351-369.
Reference for: fl: 64. Baylis, J. R. , Jr. , and A. G. DeBusk. 1967. Estimation of the frequency of multinucleate conidia in microconidiating strains. NeurosporaNewsl. 11:9.
Reference for: fl: 80. Bernardini, D. , and G. Turian. 1978. Recherches sur la differenciation conidienne de N. crassa. VII. Regulation alcooligene et capacite deconidiation (souche sauvage et mutant "fluffy"). Ann Microbiol. (Paris) 129B:551-559.
Reference for: fl: 207. Coniordos, N. , and G. Turian. 1973. Recherches sur la differenciation conidienne de N. crassa. IV. Modifications chimio-structurales de laparoi chez le type sauvage et chez deux mutants aconidiens. Ann. Microbiol. (Paris) 124A:5-28.
Reference for: fl: 410. Griffiths, A. J. F. 1979. A Neurospora experiment for an introductory biology course. Neurospora Newsl. 26:12.
Reference for: fl: 414. Griffiths, A. J. F. , and A. Rieck. 1981. Perithecial distribution patterns in standard and variant strains of Neurospora crassa. Can. J. Bot. 59:2610-2617,.
Reference for: fl: 478. Horowitz, N. H. , and H. Macleod. 1960. The DNA content of Neurospora nuclei. Microb. Genet. Bull. 17:6-7.
Reference for: fl: 609. Lindegren, C. C. 1933. The genetics of Neurospora. III. Pure bred stocks and crossing-over in N. crassa. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 60:133-154.
Reference for: fl: 612. Lindegren, C. C. , V. Beanfield, and R. Barber. 1939. Increasing the fertility of Neurospora by selective inbreeding. Bot. Gaz. 100:592-599.
Reference for: fl: 613. Lindegren, C. C. , and G. Lindegren. 1939. Non-random crossing-over in the second chromosome of Neurospora crassa. Genetics 24:1-7.
Reference for: fl: 614. Lindegren, C. C. , and G. Lindegren. 1941. X-ray and ultraviolet induced mutations in Neurospora. I. X-ray mutations. J. Hered. 32:404-412.
Reference for: fl: 700. Munkres, K. D. 1977. Selection of improved microconidial strains of Neurospora crassa. Neurospora Newsl. 24:9-10.
Reference for: fl: 717. Murray, J. C. , and A. M. Srb. 1962. The morphology and genetics of wild-type and seven morphological mutant strains of Neurosporacrassa. Can. J. Bot. 40:337-350.
Reference for: fl: 774. Oulevey-Matikian, N. , and G. Turian. 1968. Contrle metabolique et aspects ultrastructuraux de la conidiation (macro-microconidies) deNeurospora crassa. Arch. Mikrobiol. 60:35-58.
Reference for: fl: 784. Peduzzi, R. , and G. Turian. 1972. Recherches sur la differenciation conidienne de Neurospora crassa. III. Activitemalico-deshydrogenasique de structures antigeniques et ses relations avec la competence conidienne. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 122:1081-1097.
Reference for: fl: 801. Perkins, D. D. 1974. The manifestation of chromosome rearrangements in unordered asci of Neurospora. Genetics 77:459-489.
Reference for: fl: 806. Perkins, D. D. 1979. A new, highly fertile microconidiating combination, dingy, fluffy. Neurospora Newsl. 26:9.
Reference for: fl: 812. Perkins, D. D. , M. Glassey, and B. A. Bloom. 1962. New data on markers and rearrangements in Neurospora. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 4:187-205.
Reference for: fl: 816. Perkins, D. D. , D. Newmeyer, C. W. Taylor, and D. C. Bennett. 1969. New markers and map sequences in Neurospora crassa, with adescription of mapping by duplication coverage, and of multiple translocation stocks for testing linkage. Genetica 40:247-278.
Reference for: fl: 915. Sansome, E. R. , M. Demerec, and A. Hollaender. 1945. Quantitative irradiation experiments with Neurospora crassa. I. Experiments withX-rays. Am. J. Bot. 32:218-226.
Reference for: fl: 1127. Weijer, J. 1954. A genetical investigation into the td-locus of Neurospora crassa. Genetica 28:173-252.
Lesion: per-1 perithecial-1
Lesion Information for Marker:
      Linkage Group of per-1: VR
      Markers Left of per-1: asp (26%) and at (8 to 14%)
      Markers Right ofper-1: ilv(4%) and ts(25%)
Marker description or requirements:
      VR. Right of asp (26%) and at (8 to 14%). Left of ilv(4%) (489, PB) and ts(25%) (527). Perithecial walls are devoid of black pigment when the female parent carries per-1, regardless of genotype of the fertilizing parent (489, 490, 527). Alleles are of two types (490). Type I produces young, completely white perithecia that become pale yellowish after several days, and per-1 ascospores are white (e.g., alleles PBJ1, ABT8, and AR174). Type II produces mature perithecia that are somewhat darker orange with black pigment in the neck, and per-1ascospores are normal black (e.g., alleles 29278, 29-281, and UG1837). Unlike the perithecial wall trait, the ascospore trait shows no maternal effect. Black pigment develops in a ring around the ostiole of type II perithecia, but is pale or lacking in type I perithecia (490). Mosaic perithecia from heterokaryons have been used for a clonal analysis of perithecial development (527, 528). Expression is completely autonomous in ascospores (photographs in reference 529) and at least partially so in the perithecial walls (527-529). Used to test for variegated-type position effect, with negative results (532). White per-1ascospores (type I) germinate without heat shock and are usually killed by hypochlorite or by the 30-min, 60°C treatment used to activate normal ascospores (490, 527). Beaks of perithecia homozygous for allele PBJL (type I) are abnormal, and ascospores are not shot properly (N.B. Raju, personal communication). Type I alleles initially called sw: snow white (527).
Reference for: per-1: 489. Howe, H. B. and E. W. Benson 1974. A perithecial color mutant of Neurospora crassa. Mol. Gen. Genet. 131:79-83
Reference for: per-1: 490. Howe, H. B. , Jr. , and T. E. Johnson. 1976. Phenotypic diversity among alleles at the per-1 locus of Neurospora crassa. Genetics 82:595-603.
Reference for: per-1: 527. Johnson, T. E. 1975. Perithecia development and pattern formation in Neurospora crassa. Ph. D. thesis, University of Washington. Diss. Abstr. Int. 36:2615B.
Reference for: per-1: 528. Johnson, T. E. 1976. Analysis of pattern formation in Neurospora perithecial development using genetic mosaics. Dev. Biol. 54:23-36.
Reference for: per-1: 529. Johnson, T. E. 1977. Mosaic analysis of autonomy of spore development in Neurospora. Exp. Mycol. 1:253-258.
Reference for: per-1: 532. Johnson, T. E. 1979. A search for position effects in Neurospora. Neurospora Newsl. 26:14.


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